Copyright 1987, 1988, 1989 by XYQUEST, Inc.
       First Edition (Rev), February 1989
       Document Control No. 002401-04

       ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
       XYQUEST reserves the right to make changes to this document
       without notice.

       XYQUEST, Inc.
       44 Manning Road
       Billerica, MA 01821
       (508) 671-0888







 Introduction
   DCA (Document Content Architecture) is a standard format developed by IBM
to allow the use of documents on different types of word processors. There are
two DCA formats: Revisable Form and Final Form. XYQUEST's DCA Conversion
Program converts XyWrite documents into DCA Revisable Form documents. You can
also use the Conversion Program to convert DCA Revisable Form documents into
XyWrite documents.

  Because many word processing packages contain utilities that convert from
and to DCA format, DCA provides an intermediate stage for word processed
documents. For example, you can take XyWrite documents and convert them into
Revisable Form DCA documents. Then, using a utility provided by another word
processor, you can convert the DCA documents into the format used by that word
processor.

   The X2D command converts XyWrite documents into DCA documents. The D2X
command converts DCA documents into XyWrite documents.

 Note #1  File Transfer. XYQUEST's DCA Conversion Program does not perform the
transfer or communication of documents from one computer to another. You must
supply a separate communications package to handle the document transfer.

 Note #2  Installation. If you are using a hard disk drive, we recommend that
you copy the programs X2D.EXE and D2X.EXE from the XyWrite Word Processor Disk
into your XyWrite subdirectory. Otherwise, copy them onto your working disk.

 Note #3  Character Sets. The Revisable Text Form of IBM's DCA format uses a
superset of the EBCDIC character set, rather than the ASCII character set used
by XyWrite and many other word processors. Because of the different character
sets, the conversion programs may encounter a character for which they find no
equivalent. When that happens, the programs discard the characters that can't
be translated.

   For example, the ASCII character set includes double quotation marks ("),
but the DCA character set does not. When you convert a XyWrite file into DCA
Revisable Form, X2D discards the double quote characters. Similarly, the DCA
character set includes a registered trademark, but the ASCII character set
does not. If you convert a DCA revisable text form document into XyWrite
format, D2X discards any registered trademark symbols that appear in the file.

   If your files contain characters for which there are no equivalents, you
may want to edit them before running the conversion programs. Refer to
Appendix A of this document for a list of characters in the DCA character set;
refer to Appendix A of the XyWrite III Plus Reference Guide for the ASCII
character set.


  Format:
  CM DO X2D d:filename d:targetfile

   *  filename is the name of the file to be converted.
   *  targetfile (optional) is the file where the converted document is
      stored. If this filename is omitted, the document is stored in
      filename.DCA.
   *  d: (optional) specifies the drive.


 Purpose
  The X2D command, which runs under DOS, converts most XyWrite embedded
commands into DCA formatting commands. If X2D encounters a XyWrite embedded
command that has no DCA equivalent (see Note #1), it discards that command.

   The XyWrite-DCA conversion summary in Appendix B lists the XyWrite embedded
commands and special characters that have a DCA equivalent, and shows how X2D
translates them.

 Action
 Converting a XyWrite File into a DCA File
   To convert a file that contains XyWrite embedded commands into one that
contains Document Content Architecture formatting commands:

   1.  Make sure the program X2D.EXE is on the current disk (or in your
       XyWrite subdirectory if you have a hard drive).

   2.  Have in mind the name of the file you want to convert. We'll use
       CHAPTER.DOC.

   3.  Decide on a name for the target file. We'll use CHAPTER.TRN. (If you
       omit this name, X2D will add the extension ".DCA" to the input
       filename, e.g., CHAPTER.DCA.)

  4.  Run the X2D program with the DO command.

      Type:  F5_do x2d chapter.doc chapter.trn_

   Result: The original file, CHAPTER.DOC, remains intact. A new file, called
CHAPTER.TRN, contains DCA formatting commands in place of XyWrite embedded
commands. This file is in EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange
Code) format, so you cannot edit it.

 Note #1  Exceptions. DCA is a formatting standard, and therefore does not
have equivalents for many of the special features that are part of XyWrite.
Specifically, the following XyWrite functions are not available in DCA:

   *  Snaking Columns
   *  Date and Time
   *  Mail Merge
   *  Automatic Numbering (counters and reference commands)
   *  Index and Table of Contents generation
   *  Most printer control commands (Include, Printer Insert, Printer
      Control, AutoPause)

   Because there is no DCA equivalent, X2D discards the commands associated
with the functions listed above. (Appendix B contains a list of all XyWrite
commands that are converted; if a command does not appear in this list, it is
discarded by X2D.) In addition, X2D discards all of the PC graphics characters
(lines, boxes, etc.) that are part of the extended ASCII character set.

 Note #2  Default Settings. X2D does not convert format settings (e.g., page
length, form depth, etc.) that you establish with the DEFAULT command, whether
it is issued from the command line or included in the startup or printer file.
Be sure to embed in your documents all of the formatting commands that you
want to convert. Otherwise, X2D uses the built-in XyWrite default values.

 Note #3  Message Reporting. If you run X2D with the DO command and X2D
encounters an error while processing your file, the error message appears on
your screen for only an instant before you are returned to XyWrite. When
errors occur, you may want to exit to DOS and rerun the X2D program. When you
issue X2D in this way, the messages are displayed on the screen until you exit
DOS. To run the X2D program with the DOS command:

     Type:  F5_dos_

   At the DOS prompt:

     Type:  x2d chapter.doc chapter.trn_

   To return to XyWrite, at the DOS prompt:

     Type:  exit_

   Refer to the XyWrite Reference Guide for more information on using the DOS command.

 Note #4  Soft Carriage Returns. X2D generates a DCA soft return at the right margin.

 Note #5  Font Handling. There is a conceptual difference between the way DCA
and XyWrite handle font styles. DCA embeds font commands right into its
structure, which means that you cannot modify them. On the other hand, XyWrite
separates font commands to give you maximum flexibility when printing your
document.

   When converting XyWrite files into DCA, X2D assumes the Printer Tables are
set up as follows: PT1 is 10 pitch; PT2 is 12 pitch; and PT3 is proportional
type. All other styles default to PT1.


  Format
  CM DO D2X d:filename d:targetfile/m

   *  filename is the name of the file to be converted.
   *  targetfile (optional) is the file where the converted document is
      stored. If this filename is omitted, the document is stored in
      filename.XY.
   *  d: (optional) specifies the drive.
   *  /m (optional) is one of the following modifiers:
      /l  Omit the LB (Label) commands. See Note #1.
      /r  Convert the DCA RSP (required space) and NSP (numerical space) to a
          normal space. The default is to convert RSP and NSP to a hard space
          character.
      /s   Substitute spaces for soft carriage returns.
      /w  Suppress the display of the "bad field" messages. See Note #2.

 Purpose
  The D2X command, which runs under DOS, converts most DCA formatting commands
into XyWrite embedded commands. If D2X encounters a recognized DCA formatting
command that has no XyWrite equivalent, it converts that command into a
special type of LB (Label) command (see Note #1). The special LB commands
identify the type of DCA formatting command encountered, followed by the data
from the formatting command in hexadecimal format.

   Refer to Appendix C for a summary of command conversions.

 Action
  Converting a DCA File into a XyWrite File
   To convert a file that contains Document Content Architecture formatting
commands into a file that contains XyWrite embedded commands:

   1.  Make sure the program D2X.EXE is on the current disk (or in your
       XyWrite subdirectory if you have a hard drive).

   2.  Have in mind the name of the file you want to convert. We'll use
       CHAPTER.DOC.

   3.  Decide on a name for the target file. We'll use CHAPTER.TRN. (If you
       omit this name, D2X will add the extension ".XY" to the input filename,
       e.g., CHAPTER.XY.)

   4.  Run the D2X program with the DO command.

     Type:  F5_do d2x chapter.doc chapter.trn

     Result: The original file, CHAPTER.DCA, remains intact. A new file,
called CHAPTER.TRN, contains the XyWrite embedded commands in place of DCA
formatting commands. (Refer to the DCA-XyWrite Conversion Summary in Appendix
C for a list of command substitutions.)

 Note #1  Omitting Label Commands. When D2X encounters a DCA command for which
it has no equivalent, it generates an LB command. If you would prefer to have
D2X omit the LB commands, use the /l option with the command. For example:

     Type:  F5_do d2x chapter.doc chapter.trn/l

 Note #2  Unrecognized Structures. When D2X encounters a DCA structure that it
does not recognize, it displays a message that gives you the byte address
(within the file) where the structure occurred, the unknown class and type
codes, and a summary of the number of occurrences. The unrecognized structures
fall into three categories:

   *  Unrecognizable structure field (SF)
   *  Unknown multibyte control strucuture (MBC)
   *  Undefined self-identifying parameters (SIP) with the SF or MBC

   To turn off the display of these messages (except the summary, which is
always reported), use the /w option with the D2X command.

 Note #3  Foreign Language Characters. The DCA character set includes more
foreign language characters than the ASCII character set. When D2X encounters
an accented character, it converts it to the equivalent unaccented character.

 Note #4  Font Handling. There is a conceptual difference between the way DCA
and XyWrite handle font styles. DCA embeds font commands right into its
structure, which means that you cannot modify them. On the other hand, XyWrite
separates font commands to give you maximum flexibility when printing your
document.

   When converting DCA files into XyWrite, D2X assumes the Printer Tables are
set up as follows: PT1 is 10 pitch; PT2 is 12 pitch; and PT3 is proportional
type. All other styles default to PT1.

 Note #5  Message Reporting. If you run D2X with the DO command and D2X
encounters an error while processing your file, the error message appears on
your screen for only an instant before you are returned to XyWrite. When
errors occur, you may want to exit to DOS and rerun the D2X program. When you
issue D2X in this way, the messages are displayed on the screen until you exit
DOS. To run the D2X program with the DOS command:

     Type:  F5_dos_

   At the DOS prompt:

     Type:  d2x chapter.doc chapter.trn_

   To return to XyWrite, at the DOS prompt:

     Type:  exit_

   Refer to the XyWrite Reference Guide for more information on using the DOS command.




 Note: Appendix A purposely omitted.
 XyWrite-DCA Conversions  Appendix B


          XyWrite
  Cmd     Meaning               DCA Translation
  BB      Breakable Block       EK
  BT      Bottom Margin         PIP
  CT      Column Table          BCL
  EC      End Column            ECL
  FC      Flush Center          ATF (center).
  FD      Form Depth            PIP
  FL      Flush Left            LP (align left) if at the beginning of the
                                file; otherwise, SLP (align left).
  FM      Footnote Format       NFP (the `line parameter' and `tab parameter'
                                fields
  FN      Footnote              NR
  FR      Flush Right           LP (align right) if at beginning of the file;
                                otherwise SLP (align right).
  FS      Footnote Separator    NFP (the `rule' field)
  FT      FN Transition         NFP (note spacing value).
  FW      FN Wrap Separator     NFP (the `continued from text' field)
  IP      Indent Paragraph      STAB and IT; the first tab value is the Indent
                                Paragraph value. (This value is the 1st
                                argument if at start of a   paragraph and is
                                the second one if in the paragraph body.)
  JU      Justify               LP (100% justify) if at beginning of the file;
                                otherwise SLP (100% justify).
  LD      Leader                Expand the leader character in the line.
  LM      Left Margin           LP/SLP (left margin value)
  LS      Line Spacing          LP if at beginning of the file; otherwise SLP.
  MD BO   Bold Mode             EUS/EOS, then BB
  MD BU   Bold Underline        EOS, then BUS/BB
  MD FL   Flashing Mode         EB/EUS, then BOS
  MD FR   Flashing Reverse      BOS/BUS/BB
  MD FU   Flashing Underline    EB, then BOS/BUS
  MD NM   Normal Mode           EB/EUS/EOS
  MD SB   Subscript Mode        SBS
  MD SO   Flashing Bold Mode    EUS, then BOS/BB
  MD SU   Superscript Mode      SPS
  MD UL   Underline Mode        EB/EOS, then BUS
  NB      Non-Breakable Block   BK
  NJ      No Justify            LP (0% justify) if at beginning of the file;
                                otherwise SLP (0% justify).
  PA/PR   Pause                 DPS
  PL      Page Length           PIP (the max page image length)
  PT      Print Type            LP/SLP (the font attribute)
  RFA     Running Footer, All   MPB and MTBA
  RFE     Running Footer, Even  MPB and MTBE
  RFO     Running Footer, Odd   MPB and MTBO
  RHA     Running Head, All     MPT and MTTA
  RHE     Running Head, Even    MPT and MTTE
  RHO     Running Head, Odd     MPT and MTTO
  RM      Right Margin          LP/SLP (right margin value)
  RT      Relative Tabs         TP (with current values based on left margin)
                                if at beginning of the file; otherwise STAB
                                (with current values based on left margin).
  SF      Set Footnote Number   Use the page value for footnote's text unit
                                number.
  SP      Set Page Number       Use the page value for the text unit number.
  TC      Tab Clear             TP (with no value) if at the beginning of the
                                file; otherwise, STAB (with no value).
  TP      Top Margin            PIP
  TR      Tab Reset             TP (with default values) if at the beginning
                                of the file; otherwise, STAB (with default
                                values).
  TS      Tab Set               TP (with specified values) if at the beginning
                                of the file; otherwise STAB (with specified
                                values).

  SPECIAL CHARACTER CONVERSIONS
  XyWrite                       DCA
  Character                     Translation

  Tab                           HT
  Carriage Return               RCR
  Hyphen                        HYP
  Space                         SP
  FF,2,0                        RSP
  FF,0,8                        BS




DCA to XyWrite Conversions Appendix C


When D2X encounters a recognized DCA formatting command for which it has no
equivalent, it generates an LB (Label) command. The LB command identifies the
type of formatting command encountered (e.g., LBDP represents the Document
Parameters command), followed by the data from the formatting command (in
hexadecimal). This data is represented below by three dots.

If you would prefer to have D2X omit the LB commands, include the /l option
when you run D2X. (See "Converting DCA Files into XyWrite Files.")

 DCA
 Cmd      Meaning                  XyWrite Translation

 AMF      Alternate Master Format; no command generated.

 AO       Outline Level            <>

 AOP      Auto-Outline Parameters  <>

 ATF      Align Text Field         <>

 ATL      Align Text Line          <>, <>, or <>

 BCL      Begin Column Layout      <>

 BES      Begin Emphasis           <>

 BFT      Begin Formatted Text     Marks start of formatted text.
                                   Also generates <>.

 BK       Begin Keep               <>

 BLFC     Begin Line Format Change Format header only; no command generated.

 BLM      Begin Linguistic Mark    <>

 BOS      Begin Overstrike         <>

 BR       Begin Reverse            <>

 BRH      Begin Running Header     <>

 BS       Backspace                Outputs backspace.

 BT       Body Text                Sets start of text data; no command
                                   generated.

 BUS      Begin Underscore         <>

 CNT      Count                    <>


 CRE      Carrier Return           This command is ignored unless the /s
                                   option is used with the D2X command.

 CRH      Cancel Running Header    <>

 CRT      Character Replacement Table <>

 CWB      Conditional Word Break   Generates a soft hyphen.

 DP       Document Parameters      <>

 DPS      Display Prompt and Stop  <>

 EAM      Establish Alternate      Outputs commands associated
          Master Format            with the alternate style (same as EPM).

 ECL      End Column Layout        <>

 EES      End Emphasis              <> (returns to appropriate mode)

 EFT      End Formatted Text       Marks end of formatted text. Also generates
                                   <>.

 EK       End Keep                 <>

 ELFC     End Line Format Change   Format header only; no command generated.

 ELM      End Linguistic Mark      <>

 EO       Eight Ones               <>

 EOS      End Overstrike           <> (returns to appropriate mode)

 EPM      Establish Primary        Outputs commands associated
          Master Format            with primary style (i.e., <>, <>,
                                   <>, <>, <>, <>, <>,
                                   <>, <>, <>, <>, <>,
                                   <>, <>, <>, <>).

 ER       End Reverse              <> (returns to appropriate mode)

 ERH      End Running Header       <>

 EUP      End Unit Prefix          Prefix only; no command generated.


 EUS      End Underscore           <> (returns to appropriate mode)

 FUP      Format Unit Prefix       Prefix only; no command generated.

 HT       Horizontal Tab           Outputs tab character.

 HYP      Required Hyphen          Outputs hyphen.

 IEG      Insert Escaped Graphic   <>

 INS      Insert                   <>

 INX      Index                    <>

 IRT      Index Return             <>

 IT       Indent Tab               <>

 ITRY     Index Entry              <>

 IU       Include Unit             Copies the "included" text unit into the
                                   file.

 LINX     Locate Index             <>

 LN       Line Numbering           <>

 LP       Line Parameters          <>, <>, <>, <>, and
                                   <>, <>, or <>

 LPO      Locate Process Output    <>

 LTOC     Locate Table-of-Contents <>

 MPB      Margin Text Parameters,  <>
          Bottom

 MPT      Margin Text Parameters, Top  <>

 MTBA     Margin Text, Bottom, All <>

 MTBE     Margin Text, Bottom, Even <>

 MTBO     Margin Text, Bottom, Odd <>

 MTTA     Margin Text, Top, All    <>

 MTTE     Margin Text, Top, Even   <>

 MTTO     Margin Text, Top, Odd    <>

 NBS      Numeric Backspace        Outputs ff,0,8.

 NFP      Note Format Parameters   <> <>, <>

 NR       Note Reference           <>

 NSP      Numeric Space            Outputs hard space unless /r option is used
                                   with D2X command.

 NTR      Note Text Reference      <>

 NUL      Null                     This command is ignored.

 OHT      Outline Heading Text     <>

 OM       Operator Message         <>

 PDAT     Print Date               <>

 PDI      Print Document Information <>

 PE       Page End                 This command is ignored.

 PFA      Punctuation Format,       <>
          Arithmetic Parameters

 PFC      Punctuation Format,       <>
          Character Parameters

 PFP      Page Formatting Parameters <> and <>

 PIN      Page Image Numbering     <>

 PIP      Page Image Parameters    <>, <>, <> and <>

 PM       Print Medium             <>

 PMF      Primary Master Format    Format header only; no command generated.

 PPIN     Page Number              <>

 PTIM     Print Time               <>

 PTUN     Page Number              <>

 RCR      Required Carrier Return  Outputs carriage return character.

 RLM      Release Left Margin      <>

 RMF      Return to Master Font    <> (reestablishes Printer Table from
                                   primary style).

 RMLF     Return to Master         <>, <>, <>, <>, and
          Line Format              <>, <>, or <> (Reestablishes
                                   values from primary style.)

 RPE      Required Page End        <>

 RSP      Required Space           Outputs hard space unless the /r option is
                                   used with the D2X command.

 RTMF     Return to Master         Reestablishes commands associated with
          Format                   primary style (Same commands as EPM).

 SBS      Subscript                <> (if in normal mode) or <>
                                   (if in subscript mode).

 SCG      Set GCGID through GCID   No command generated.

 SFG      Set CFID through GFID    <>

 SHY      Syllable Hyphen          Outputs soft hyphen.

 SKIP     Skip Lines               <>

 SLP      Set Line Parameters      <>, <>, <>, <>, and
                                   <>, <>, or <>

 SP       Space                    Outputs space character.

 SPS      Superscript              <> (if in normal mode) or <>
                                   (if in superscript mode).

 SSCA     Set Spelling Check Attributes <>

 STAB     Set Tabs (Horizontal)    <>

 STC      Set Text Color           <>

 STOP     Stop                     <>

 SVA      Set Visual Attribute     <>

 SUB      Substitute               <>

 TP       Tab Parameters           <>

 TPR      Tab Parameters,          <>
          Right to Left

 TUFC     Text Unit Format Change  Format header only; no command generated.

 TUP      Text Unit Prefix         Prefix only; no command generated.

 UBS      Unit Backspace           <>

 WUS       Word Underscore         The preceding word is underscored in the
                                   current mode.

 ZICR     Zero Index Carrier Return <>


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